Competitive interaction between Frankliniella occidentalis and locally present thrips species: a global review

The most severe outcome of the widespread interspecific competition that occurs between invasive organisms and their local congeners is species displacement. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), which originated from western North America, has invaded much of the agricultural world since the 1970s, and in so doing, has become a dominant thrips species in many of the areas it has invaded. Its invasion success and the extent of its distribution in the regions it has invaded can be largely attributed to its superiority in interspecific competition. In some instances, however, F. occidentalis has been less successful in its invasion attempts and has not become dominant in its new environment. Thrips species displacements often arise from interactions of different mechanisms that are mediated by numerous biotic and abiotic factors. In this review, we summarize competitive interaction events that have been documented between F. occidentalis and several species of other locally present thrips, their interaction mechanisms and mediating factors. This review will help to better understand displacement events of thrips species in some areas and to develop management strategies for thrips species with high invasion potential.