Characterization of hexaconazole-degrading strain Sphingobacterium multivorumand analysis of transcriptome for biodegradation mechanism

Abstract
      Hexaconazole is a triazole fungicide,which is stable and difficult to degrade in the environment. The existence of hexaconazole could pose a certain risk to the environment and the health of living organisms. In this study, an efficient degradation strain B-3 (Sphingobacterium multivorum) of hexaconazole was isolated from sewage, activated sludge, and soil. The degradation efficiency of hexaconazole can reach 85.6% in 6 days at a temperature of 32.5 °C, pH of 6.31, initial inoculum of 0.4 g L−1 and initial concentration of hexaconazole of 50 mg L−1. During degradation, three metabolites (M1: 2-(2, 4-dichlorophenyl)-1-(1H-1, 2, 4-triazol-1-yl) hexane-2, 5-diol; M2: 2-(2, 4-dichlorophenyl) hexane-1, 2-diol; M3: 1H-1, 2, 4-triazole) were identified. Moreover, 45.6% hexaconazole can be degraded in 60 days in natural soil containing B-3. The results of the transcriptome sequencing indicated the presence of 864 differential genes, in which aldehyde dehydrogenase, monooxygenase, RND transporters, and ABC transporters were up-regulated. The generation of 2-(2, 4-dichlorophenyl)-1-(1H-1, 2,4-triazol-1-yl) hexane-2, 5-diol may be due to the participation of monooxygenase.