Flutolanil affects circadian rhythm in zebrafish (Danio rerio) by disrupting the positive regulators

    Circadian rhythms are fundamental to behavior and physiology of organisms. Flutolanil as a fungicide is toxic to zebrafish embryos. The aims of this study were to determine whether flutolanil would influence circadian rhythms of zebrafish and the mechanism involved. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to flutolanil (0, 0.125, 0.5 and 2mg/L) for 4 days. Here we report that flutolanil increased the melatonin levels of zebrafish. The mRNA levels of genes related to circadian rhythms were significantly altered. The clock level was significantly increased, but the content of cry1 showed no apparent changes. Moreover, our findings that the level of GH was significantly decreased were consistent with the abnormal development of zebrafish embryos. The expression levels of genes related to development, behavior and reproduction were significantly altered by flutolanil. These results indicate that flutolanil disturbed circadian rhythms of zebrafish primarily by affecting the positive elements, which were at least in partial responsible for abnormal development and behavior of zebrafish. And we speculate that flutolanil is toxic to zebrafish embryos at least in part via dysregulation of circadian rhythms involving clock.